The subject of this chapter is genetically-induced (inherited) racial differences in behavior. Some (above quote) may question whether behavior is inherited in humans, 2 though it is clearly inherited in other mammals as well as birds, insects, crustaceans, fish, etc., 3 and even plants. Indeed, the argument has been made that without inherited emotions that motivate at least some behavior, a living thing would have no motivation to do anything. (Damasio, 1994).
We humans do not find ourselves just doing something that we did not intend to do, but rather we feel an urge to behave in a certain way, then give in to the urge when it is convenient to do so or it is so intense that it is hard to resist. Throughout the day we have urges to eat, urinate, sneeze, etc., all of which are genetically-caused feelings that induce us to engage in certain behavior. We may feel horny, nauseous, or tired, inducing us to seek sex, throw up, or take a nap. Feelings of pain and pleasure induce us to move away from heat or to take drugs. 4Not only do we inherit most of the urges that guide our behavior, but those urges did not arise with the first man – they arose many millions of years before Homo was here.
Even very specific urges can be genetically-induced in humans. A pregnant woman’s craving for odd foods, perhaps needed for the health of her fetus, has provided laughs for many sitcoms. 5 Normal human children are born with a fear of snakes and spiders. 6 Women are attracted to high status men and men are attracted to young, healthy women. The similar idiosyncrasies of identical twins, even when they have been raised apart in different environments, can be explained only as inherited behavior. 7 Our environment may accentuate or diminish the extent to which we give in to our innate urges, but it may never entirely remove them.
When we deal with other people it is more difficult to determine whether our behavior is environmentally-acquired or genetically induced. The behaviors compared in Table 12-1, however, are so universal, both in location and time, that there should be a significant genetic component to them.
|Preparing for the future (2)||High||High||Low||Very Low|
|Work ethic (3)||High||High||Low||Low|
|High school non-dropout rate 8||79%||72%||51%||-|
|Promiscuity (number of sexual partners)(4)||Low||Medium||High||High|
|Pair bonding (5)||High||High||Low||Low|
|Intercourse position (6)||Most face-to-face||Most face-to-face||?||?|
|Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) (7)||Low||Norm||High||High|
|Father involvement (8)||Norm||Norm||Low||-|
|Welfare dependency||Low||Norm||4½ times greater than whites||-|
|Altruism (9)||High||Very high||Lower||-|
|Social conformity (10)||Higher||High||Lower||-|
|Full chattel slavery (11)||Rare||Not since 1865 in US||Not since 1865 in US||Still reported|
|Cannibalism (12)||No||No||No||Incidents still reported|
|Murder||Low||Norm||13 times higher than whites||High|
|Rape||Low||Norm||10 times higher than whites||High|
|White collar crimes||Low||Norm||3 times higher than whites||High|
(1) In their opinion of their own attractiveness and competency in reading, science, and social studies (but not math), blacks score higher than whites and Asians, despite their actual lower scores. 9 Ethnic pride, prohibited to whites by the Equality Police, increases happiness and, presumably, self-esteem. (Kiang, 2006).
(2) Forethought, the ability to plan and prepare for the future (preferring increased future benefits to immediate gratification), is closely related to the absence of impulsiveness. 10 The savings rate among Asians is high, indicating increased planning and willingness to defer gratification. 11 Drug addicts, children, low IQ people, and blacks prefer pleasures now rather than later, 12 and typically have little or no savings. 13 In a classic experiment, children were offered a small candy bar now or a large one later; most whites chose the large one later and most blacks chose the small one now. 14 A number of observers of Africans have commented that their behavior is “child-like” – that they are similar to children. 15
The inability to defer gratification leads to renting instead of saving and buying, theft rather than working and waiting, and rape instead of courting and seduction. The ability to plan ahead and defer gratification is critical to creating and maintaining a civilization, where the rights of others must be respected even if it means not getting something immediately when you want it.
(3) Asians students are known for the extra hours of study they put in, Caucasians less so, and African-Americans still less. Eurasians become self-motivated as they mature, Africans less so. Black unemployment is typically significantly higher than for Eurasians, even when jobs are available. “Hard work pays off in the future; indolence pays off now.” 16
All populations of all living things all over the planet, animal or plant, expand their numbers to meet the resources available. (Populations that failed to do this simply went extinct long ago as the inevitable drops in numbers in bad times would not have been compensated for by increases in good times.) This means that, a great deal of the time, every population bumps up against the limits of the carrying capacity of its territory and, during those difficult times, there will be intense competition, physical conflicts, and starvation. 17 Only those individuals who are prepared for the bad times will survive them.
In the colder north, the bad times come every winter when food is difficult or impossible to find. Man is not made to hibernate, 18 so he must store enough food to survive the winter, either as provisions or by fattening up. His body fat will not feed his children and children cannot store enough fat on their own bodies to make it through the winter, so there is no alternative but to store provisions; fortunately, the cold weather helps preserve food. The amount that a family needs to store will depend upon the severity of the winter and, since that cannot be predicted, man will, like squirrels, store an excess of food if he can.
In contrast, an African in the tropics has no winter to worry about, but he does have changes in rainfall and other factors that affect his food supply. Unlike winter, however, these changes are unpredictable and preparing for them is likely to be a waste of time and resources. And, even if he acquires extra food, it is nearly impossible to store it for long at the high temperatures of the tropics. 19 Hunting for extra food that cannot be easily stored not only wastes his future food supplies, but could result in injury and death; he is better off doing nothing until he must. 20
(4) Blacks have the most sexual partners. 21 The sex drive of non-Hispanic blacks is 1.19 standard deviations (SDs) or 37% greater than whites, but that of Asian/Pacific Islanders is 0.124 SDs or 4% lower. 22 The proportion of adults who first had sex before age 15 was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (28%), compared to 14% for both Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Only 6% of blacks abstained from sex until age 21 or older, fewer than Mexican-Americans (17%) or non-Hispanic whites (15%); 46% of black men and 13% of black women reported having at least 15 partners in a lifetime, more than other racial or ethnic groups. 23 According to the CDC (National Statistics Reports, Preliminary 2006, Table 1), 70.7% of the births of non-Hispanic blacks were out of wedlock, compared to 26.6% for non-Hispanic white mothers. Africans have a high frequency of fraternal twins (up to 49 per 1000 births) 24 which indicates high promiscuity and low pair bonding.
Promiscuity in a population correlates with larger testicles because females have sex with many males and the male that produces the most sperm is more likely to fertilize the egg. 25 There is a tradeoff between testicle size and brain size because both are costly organs – if more resources are invested in larger testicles, then there are fewer resources available for a larger brain. Also, brains and testicles support different strategies for the male to pass on his alleles; large testicles rely on sperm competition and a large brain relies on “meat for sex,” i.e., supplying the female with the resources she needs to reproduce and support her offspring. 26 If females need male resources, big brains beat big balls. Of the three major races, blacks have the largest testicles and the smallest brains. (Chap. 10).
(5) (Jaynes, 1989). Pair bonding is related to monogamy, the extent to which men and women limit their sexual activity to a single partner. 27 Pair bonding supports a family structure for raising children, a more “K” reproductive strategy. Since the burden of provisioning fell more heavily upon men in the cold north than in the warm tropics, where women gathered most of the food for themselves and their children, it was more difficult for a man in the north to support more than one wife. Monogamy is more typical of the colder climates, while polygamy is more typical of the tropics. 28 In sub-Saharan Africa, a woman is more likely to have children by different fathers, and the children are raised, not by a family, but by the village. 29 Monogamy was induced by females when they evolved to hide obvious indications that they were fertile (e.g., bright red genitalia or rumps), so that males stayed around for sex all the time and helped raise the kids instead of chasing after other females. (Rodriguez-Girones, 2001). Unlike female apes, who give obvious signals when they are in estrus (i.e., capable of conceiving), it is not obvious when a human female is ovulating. Concealed ovulation in females leads to “copulatory vigilance” in males, i.e., males had to stay close to the female as much as possible to keep other males away and be certain that other males did not father her children; that would also promote pair bonding. (Lovejoy, 1981). Pair bonding was an important step toward becoming human (Chapais, 2008) and, since there is less of it in Africa, that suggests (Chapter 4, Rule 11) that it did not originate in Africa and that man’s lineage became human outside of Africa.
The hormone-driven feeling of falling in love is clearly an adaptation that induces pair bonding. 30 Thus, the feeling should have been absent prior to pair bonding and should be diminished in Africans, who pair bond less. Male deception can be expected when females rely upon their mates being in love with them in order to ensure long-term pair bonding. Men, even those who pair bond, seek sex with other women to maximize their fitness because having sex a thousand times with one woman will produce fewer progeny than having sex once with a thousand women. Each sex tries to maximize its fitness, only because those individuals whose alleles did not induce maximizing behavior did not leave descendants.
Prior to agriculture (about 12,000 ya) our hunter-gatherer ancestors pair bonded only as long as it took to wean a child, 4 or 5 yrs. After that, the couple would find other mates if they wished to. (Fisher, 1992). However, when the hunter-gatherer lifestyle gave way to agriculture, splitting up was no longer feasible because survival was tied to farming a particular piece of land. As the percentage of farmers in the U.S. has declined from about 97% to less than 3%, couples have reverted to man’s original lifestyle of short term pair bonding (Allman, 1994, p. 130), aka “serial monogamy.”
(6) “Most animals [female primates] have brightly colored and fleshy rumps, and they mate from behind.” (Etcoff, 1999, p. 188). Only man, orangutans (usually), bonobos (commonly; De Waal, 1997, p. 102; Coppens, 2004, p. 13; though Schwartz, 2005, p. 155, says it is mostly during homosexual encounters), Japanese macaques (30% of the time, Wolfe, 1984), gorillas (“sometimes”) 31 and porcupines (wisely) mate front-to-front. When man shifted to front-to-front mating, women’s breasts and nipples became a more prominent visual display to the male. (Morris, 1967). The large fleshy rumps of Andaman Islanders, Hottentots, and Bushmen (Fig. 26-4, 26-5, & 26-6), suggest front-to-back mating, but data on the sexual positions of Africans is hard to come by. “We travel in packs and we do it from the back.” (Lyric from the album “Doggystyle” by African American rapper “Snoop Dogg.”) The popularity of “down low” (anal homosexuality) in African American men, which has been responsible for the spread of AIDS to African American women, 32 also suggests front-to-back mating, as does the high level of AIDS in Africa. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse is 20 to 500 times more infectious than vaginal intercourse (Leynaert, 1998) and people frequently lie about their sexual activities. (Brody, 1997). While the female genitals in Orientals are “front and high,” in Africans they are “back and low”; erections in Orientals are “parallel to the body and stiff” but in blacks are “at right angles to body and flexible,” which also suggests front-to-back mating. 33
(7) Blacks have the highest incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a consequence of their promiscuity and impulsiveness. Of the roughly 1 million people estimated to be living with HIV in the United States, 47% are African-American (CDC, 2005) and they were 56% of the newly diagnosed HIV cases in 2005. African Americans represent about 12.8% of the U.S. population (U.S. Census, 2005), but black men are diagnosed with HIV at more than seven times the rate of white men, and black women at 20 times the rate of white women. (Kalb, 2006; Hall, 2008). The prevalence of the AIDS virus doubled from 1% to 2% of American blacks while white rates held steady at 0.2 percent. 34 Non-Hispanic blacks between 19 and 24 yrs of age are 20 times more likely to be infected with HIV than young adults in any other racial or ethnic group in the U.S. Figure 12-1 gives the percentage of HIV/AIDS cases in Washington, D.C. (60% black) by race. 35 All the top 15 countries for HIV/AIDS in 2005 were African. 36
Blacks have higher rates for other sexually transmitted diseases as well, which can also be attributed to their promiscuity and failure to practice safe sex (which requires anticipating future consequences of current acts). In 2006, the U.S. African American chlamydia rate was 8 times the white rate, the African American gonorrhea rate was 18 times the white rate; the black congenital syphilis rate in 2005 was 15.1 times the white rate. 37 About 40% of U.S. black adults have genital herpes, compared to 14% of whites. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Aug., 2006). Nearly half of black girls age 14 to 19 have at least one STD, compared to 20% for white girls. (CDC, 2003-2004 data).
(8) Africans are more likely to be cads than dads (more “r” orientated, see previous chapter). Low father involvement (e.g., illegitimacy, divorce) is tied to promiscuity in girls and aggression in boys (Blain, 1988; Heatherton, 1972), both of which are higher in African Americans. Africans and African Americans have similar family structures, suggesting it is genetic. (Wilson, 2002).
(9) A desire to help other people, even strangers (“altruism”) appears to be a genetically-induced behavior as it has been observed in children as young as 18 months. 38 No studies of racial differences in altruism have been found but, in terms of donations of money, blood, and human organs, Caucasians are far more generous than other races, and they do so less in accordance with kinship.
(11) Full chattel slavery (the buying and selling of people as though they were animals), either legally or tolerated, has been practiced by all three races against members of their own race and other races, 39 but it is practiced openly today only by Africans. 40 In the U.S. prior to 1865, some black slaves who had been freed even purchased their own black slaves. (Grooms, 1995, pp. 17-21; Robson, 2006; Koger, 1985). Had whites not purchased African slaves from Africans, the slaves would most likely have been slain and eaten because they were enemies and had little value unless they could be sold as slaves. Thus, being purchased by non-Africans was a successful reproductive “strategy” for African slaves. 41
(12) Cannibalism occurs under a number of very different circumstances. In its least unacceptable form people find the behavior abhorrent, but the choice is eat or die. “Desperation cannibalism” occurred, for example, when the Donner Party was trapped in the Rocky Mountains in 1846, when a plane crashed in the Andes Mountains in 1972, and when the Allies starved the German people after WWII. (Keeling, 1947, p. 65). Next, there is cannibalism that is not necessary to live, but it is part of the culture. “Cultural cannibalism” occurred on Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific, kuru, a brain disease caused by prions, was passed on to people who ate the brains of dead relatives. It has also been reported in China. (Chong, K.R., Cannibalism in China, Longwood Academic, 1990, excerpted Dienekes’Anthropology Blog, Feb. 9, 2004).
Last, there is “homicidal cannibalism,” deliberately killing people for the pleasure of eating them, either in secret by psychopathic individuals or in the open by groups of seemingly-normal people. From cut marks on fossilized human bones, cannibalism is believed to have been widespread among early man, 42 but it is difficult to determine the circumstances from fossils. However, given that man competed group-against-group, with groups expanding in times of plenty and starving the rest of the time, killing people in other groups for food would not be surprising. Before contact with the outside world, killing people for food was common in Africa and there are still occasional reports of it today. 43 It was also practiced by indigenous natives in Ecuador as recently as the 1970′s and is still being reported in New Guinea. (Raffaele, 2006).
Homicidal cannibalism is a good indicator of psychopathy because it requires the complete absence of empathy for the victim. It is likely that early men were homicidal cannibals and would be judged pychopathic today. When man moved north, cooperation, trust, and honor were required for survival. Since psychopaths lacked the empathy needed for those qualities psychopathy would have become maladaptive and would have been selected against and minimized. Thus, we should expect tropical primitive populations to have a higher percentage of psychopathic individuals. (Lynn, 2002c).
(13) The crime ratios in Table 12-1 are for African Americans living in the U.S., 44 but similar ratios are found in other countries that have a high percentage of blacks, such as Great Britain, 45 France, and Canada. Indeed, go to any city or country in the world that has a significant black population, and blacks will be overrepresented in the criminal population. 46 In Great Britain, 3 out of 4 black men are in the DNA criminal database (i.e., they were arrested; Telegraph, Nov. 5, 2006). Using data from international surveys of crime, (Rushton, 2000a), pp. 158-160) found that violent crime was twice as common in Africa and the Caribbean as in predominantly white countries. In the U.S., the crime rate of black high school dropouts between ages 26 and 30 is so high that more are institutionalized (34%) than are employed (30%). 47 Although blacks are only about 12.8% of the U.S. population (U.S. Census, 2005), “Among the 1.4 million inmates sentenced to more than one year at year-end 2003, an estimated 44 percent were black, 35 percent white, 19 percent Hispanic and 2 percent of other races.” (Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 7, 2004, on About.com).
African American crime has long been a fixture in the U.S. In 1954, for example, the Negro/white ratio was 16:1 for murder, 13:1 for robbery, and 6:1 for rape, despite Negroes being only about 10% of the population at that time. (Dept. of Justice, Vol. 25, No. 2). More recently, the death from murder rate in 2003 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic males aged 20 to 24 was 6.5 for whites but 10 times higher, 64.5, for blacks. (National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 55, No. 10, Mar. 15, 2007). Compared to non-blacks, blacks are seven times more likely to commit murder, 48 eight times more likely to commit robbery, and three times more likely to use a gun in a crime. 49 In the United States, 18.71 blacks were killed per 100,000 blacks and 2.97 whites were killed per 100,000 whites. 50 During the 10 year period from 1975 to 1985, spousal homicide among blacks was 8.4 times higher than that of whites. 51 Since blacks discourage blacks from cooperating with the police (“Don’t Snitch”) and black juries frequently refuse to convict black defendants, even when they are obviously guilty, e.g., O.J. Simpson, the real black crime rates are higher than the reported rates.
Blacks and white egalitarians may say that higher black crime rates are just a stereotype, but even they are betrayed by their amygdala, a part of the brain that serves as an “alarm” that activates a cascade of other biological systems to protect the body in times of danger. The amygdala alarm “goes off” in about two-thirds of both blacks and whites, even egalitarian whites, who are shown pictures of black faces, but not when shown pictures of white faces. (NCF, 2005). As the statistics show, people, e.g., Barack Obama’s white grandmother, correctly believe that the primitive features of blacks indicate a more violent and dangerous person. African American male murderers of whites who have “black-looking” features are more than twice as likely to be executed as those who look less ‘black,” i.e., less primitive and therefore less dangerous. (Eberhardt, 2006). Other primitive people also have a high crime rate. 52
A tendency towards criminal behavior is heritable (Wright, 1997, p. 23). A 1999 Justice Department survey found that 46% of jail inmates had at least one sibling, parent, or child who had been incarcerated at some point. “Research consistently places the average IQ of convicted lawbreakers at 92, some 8 points below the population average and 10 points below the average for law-abiding folks. Available data also suggest that offenders who get away with their crimes fare no better on intelligence tests than those who get nabbed and convicted. IQ scores often dip most sharply for serious, repeat offenders, a small set of primarily young men who commit a majority of all crimes.” (Bower, B., “Criminal Intellects,” Science News, Apr. 15, 1995).
Crime increases as IQ decreases in both whites and blacks, but blacks commit more crime than whites who have the same IQ. Lynn suggests that this is because blacks are more likely to have a psychopathic personality, as evidenced, for example, by their inability to work consistently, unlawful behaviors, aggressiveness, failure to pay debts, impulsiveness, deception, recklessness, poor parenting, absence of remorse, and disruptive childhood behavior. 53 The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is used to measure psychopathic personality. Blacks and American Indians have the highest psychopathic scores, then Hispanics, followed by whites, then ethnic Japanese and Chinese, who have the lowest scores. 54 Consciousness and character are concentrated in the frontal lobe of the brain, which is a recent evolutionary development and therefore not yet completely stable. Europeans have the most developed frontal lobe and Africans the least. 55
There is so much more black-against-white crime than white-against-black crime (Figure 12-2), despite blacks having more contact with other blacks and blacks constituting a smaller percentage of the population, that it is clear that blacks are targeting whites. 56 Between 1964 and 1994 there were over 25 million violent interracial crimes, overwhelmingly black offenders and white victims. (Justice Department and FBI statistics). “Black Americans have committed at least 170 million crimes against white Americans in the past 30 years.” 57 “Blacks commit more violent crime against whites than against blacks,” and are “an estimated 39 times more likely to commit violent crime against a white person than vice versa, and 136 times more likely to commit robbery,” despite whites doing their best to stay away from blacks. (NCF, 2005). This is clearly seen in Figure 12-2 (La Griffe du Lion, 1999a), which explains “white flight.” In Figure 12-3, the probability (“Φ,” left vertical axis) that a white is violently victimized within a year increases exponentially as the proportion of blacks in a neighborhood increases, i.e., blacks target whites as soon as they start to outnumber whites. 58
Black rap “music” and black leaders encourage blacks to commit crimes against whites. At least one prominent black leader, Khallid Muhammad (a personal assistant of Louis Farrakhan and an event organizer with Al Sharpton), has openly called for blacks to kill whites, even women and babies. 59
Not only is the black-on-white crime rate much higher than the white-on-black crime rate, but it differs from white crime in that it is more impulsive, more savage, 60 and often involves more attackers, 61 sometimes even black females, who are more-or-less “normal.”62 Examples, typically ignored by the mass media, 63 include the December, 2000, “Wichita Massacre,” where the Carr brothers raped, sodomized, and murdered five young whites (three men and two women), and the January, 2007, Knoxville, Tennessee, torture, sexual mutilations, rapes, and murders of Channon Christian and Christopher Newsom – five blacks, including one female, were charged. 64
African men have a high crime rate for rape, regardless of what country they are in. 65 There is little punishment for rape in Africa and therefore, it would be maladaptive not to rape. It is a good reproductive strategy for a male who is unable to obtain a female any other way. 66
In a 2005 survey on “rape and sexual assault” in the United States, 67 37,460 white women were victims of blacks, but white-on-black rape was too low to show up in the statistics. 68 “What this means is that every day in the United States, over one hundred white women are raped or sexually assaulted by a black man.” 69
Between 2001 and 2003, there were, on average, 15,400 black-on-white rapes per year, while whites averaged only 900 white-on-black rapes per year, a black-white ratio of 17.1:1. (U.S. Department of Justice’s National Crime Victimization Study (NCVS)). Since there are five-and-one-half times as many whites as blacks in America, that means that blacks rape whites over ninety times as frequently as whites rape blacks. The actual difference is much higher because the “white“ figure (900) includes Hispanics, who are counted as white. Thus, the real black-white ratio is likely 200:1 or higher. (NCF, 2005). The number of white men raped by blacks in prison may be even greater than the number of white women raped by blacks. (Taylor, J., “Hard Time,” American Renaissance, Apr., 2002, 13(4), a review of Mariner, J.No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons, Human Rights Watch, 2001).
Although “blacks committed 10,000 gang-rapes against whites between 2001 and 2003, the NCVS samples did not pick up a single ‘white’ [includes some Hispanics]-on-black gang rape.” (NCF, 2005). Blacks also have a higher rate than whites for child molestation. 70